The privilege to create and manage file shares is controlled by the security permissions on this Registry key:
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HKLM | System | CurrentControlSet | Services | LanManServer | Shares
By default, the Server Operators group is assigned a limited set permissions in the System hive to create and modify keys and values. So one solution to your problem would be to create a group in your AD domain and nest that group in the Server Operators group on your member servers. It is similar to the way the Domain Admins group is nested into the local Administrators group.
For member workstations, the situation is a little different. The Power Users group only has READ permissions on the Shares key. You could change this to give Power Users (or another group) Full Control permissions on Shares. This will require resetting permissions for this key on all member workstations.As for your second question, the Power Users group only exists in the SAM of a Professional desktop. This is why you can see it in the member workstation but not in the domain.
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