Windows Server Definitions

This glossary explains the meaning of key words and phrases that information technology (IT) and business professionals use when discussing Microsoft Windows Server and related software products. You can find additional definitions by visiting WhatIs.com or using the search box below.

  • G

    GUID (global unique identifier)

    A GUID (global unique identifier) is a term used by Microsoft for a number that its programming generates to create a unique identity for an entity such as a Word document.

  • H

    Handle to Registry Key (HKEY)

    Handle to Registry Key (HKEY) is a typedef supplied in the Windows headers files.

  • hotfix

    A hotfix is code (sometimes called a patch) that fixes a bug in a product.

  • HPFS (High Performance File System)

    HPFS (High Performance File System) is the file system introduced with IBM's OS/2 Version 1.2. HPFS is noted for handling large files (2 gigabytes) across multiple hard disk volumes (addressable up to 2 terabytes) and long file names (up to 256 bytes).

  • Hungarian notation

    In programming, Hungarian notation is a set of conventions for naming data objects in which a programmer adds a meaningful prefix of one or several characters to the object's name to identify what type of object it is.

  • Hyper-V live migration

    Hyper-V live migration is a Hyper-V feature that lets admins move running virtual machines from one failover cluster node to a cluster in the same node.

  • I

    icacls

    icacls is a command-line utility that can be used to modify NTFS file system permissions in Windows Server 2003 SP2, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista and Windows 7.

  • ICM file (Image Color Matching file)

    In Windows 95 and possibly other operating systems, an ICM (Image Color Matching) file contains a color system profile for a particular application or device such as a color printer or scanner.

  • ICQ

    ICQ ("I Seek You") is a program you can download that will let you know when friends and contacts are also online on the Internet.

  • illegal operation

    An illegal operation, a term often seen in error messages, is a command to the operating system or an instruction to the computer processor that specifies an operation that is unknown to the operating system or processor and that therefore can't be performed.

  • import

    In a personal computer application, to import is to open a file that is in a format different from the format the application creates on its own.

  • INI

    INI is a file name extension used in Microsoft Windows.

  • Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)

    Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) is a specification for the equipment that monitors the physical environment and behavior of a server. The specification, developed jointly by Intel, Hewlett-Packard, Dell, and NEC, is intended to maintain regulation of temperature, voltage, and power, and to ensure the proper operation of the firmware.

  • Internet Information Services (IIS)

    Internet Information Services (IIS) is a flexible, general-purpose web server from Microsoft that runs on Windows systems to serve requested HTML pages or files.

  • invocation ID

    An invocation ID is an ID number that identifies databases within Active Directory and changes as AD is in a restore process. Invocation IDs change during the restore process to make sure replication is consistent.

  • IOS (Input/Output Supervisor)

    IOS (Input/Output Supervisor) is a Microsoft Windows program that supervises the interaction between file system requests and events and input/output device drivers.

  • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)

    ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) is a standard bus (computer interconnection) architecture that was associated with the IBM AT motherboard.

  • ISAPI (Internet Server Application Program Interface)

    ISAPI (Internet Server Application Program Interface) is a set of Windows program calls that let you write a Web server application that will run faster than a common gateway interface (CGI) application.

  • iSCSI target (Internet Small Computer System Interface target)

    ISCSI target is a storage option in an Internet Small Computer System Interface server that manages connections between servers that need access to the targets and the iSCSI storage subsystem in a storage area network.

  • iSCSI Target Server

    ISCSI Target Server is a server that lets administrators boot multiple computers to a network from a single operating system image in a central location.

  • J

    Joliet

    Joliet is an extension to ISO 9660, the specification for the file system (including file names) for the content on a compact disc (CD); it allows file names up to 64 characters in length (including spaces) and the use of Unicode characters in file names (sometimes needed for internationalization).

  • Just Enough Administration (JEA)

    Just Enough Administration (JEA) is a PowerShell toolkit designed to help an organization reduce risk by restricting IT administrative rights.

  • L

    Linux Secure Boot

    Linux Secure Boot is a feature in Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 that allows some Linux distributions to boot under Hyper-V as Generation 2 virtual machines.

  • Local Group Policy Editor

    Local Group Policy Editor is a user interface that allows all Local Group Policy objects and their settings to be managed in one place.

  • M

    managed print services (MPS)

    Managed print services (MPS) is the provision and oversight of business document output needs by an external service provider. Rather than dedicating internal resources to business activities related to printing, a company outsources them, freeing up those resources for activities that are more relevant to the business' main concerns.

  • master file table (MFT)

    The master file table (MFT) is a database in which information about every file and directory on an NT File System (NTFS) volume is stored... (Continued)

  • MCITP (Microsoft Certified IT Professional)

    An MCITP (Microsoft Certified IT Professional) is a credential that proves that an individual has a complete set of skills required to perform a particular IT job role, such as enterprise or virtualization administrator.

  • memory leak

    A memory leak is the gradual loss of available computer memory when a program repeatedly fails to return memory it obtained for temporary use.

  • memtest86

    Memtest86 is an open source diagnostics utility for testing a computer's random access memory (RAM) on an x86 machine.

  • MetaFrame

    MetaFrame is the name for a thin client/server software application from Citrix that is used to provide Microsoft's Windows Terminal Server product (WTS) with additional server and client functionality by allowing any client, no matter what operating system (OS) they are using, to connect to a Windows Terminal Server and run a Windows application through their browser.

  • Microsoft

    Microsoft is a leading global vendor of computer software; hardware for computer, mobile and gaming systems; and cloud services.

  • Microsoft Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS)

    Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) is a server role in Active Directory that allows admins to manage and store information about resources from a network, as well as application data, in a distributed database.

  • Microsoft Active Directory Migration Tool (ADMT)

    The Microsoft Active Directory Migration Tool (ADMT) is a tool used to move Active Directory objects from one Windows Server Active Directory domain or forest to another.

  • Microsoft Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD Rights Management Services)

    Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS) is a security tool that provides a safeguard to prevent unauthorized access to data.

  • Microsoft Antimalware for Azure

    Microsoft Antimalware for Azure is a security extension in Microsoft Azure that extends antimalware protection to virtual machines and to cloud services.

  • Microsoft AzMan (Microsoft Authorization Manager)

    Microsoft AzMan (Authorization Manager) is a role-based access and security framework for .NET applications.

  • Microsoft Azure Active Directory Authentication Library (ADAL)

    Microsoft Azure Active Directory Authentication Library (ADAL) is a tool in the .NET framework that lets client applications developers authenticate users to an on-premises Active Directory deployment or to the cloud.

  • Microsoft Azure Active Directory Connect (Microsoft Azure AD Connect)

    Microsoft Azure Active Directory Connect (Microsoft Azure AD Connect) is a tool for connecting on-premises identity infrastructure to Microsoft Azure Active Directory.

  • Microsoft Azure ExpressRoute

    Microsoft Azure ExpressRoute is a service that provides a private connection between an organization's on-premises infrastructure and Microsoft Azure data centers.

  • Microsoft Azure File Service

    Microsoft Azure File Service is a service that allows Windows Server admins to access SMB shares in the Azure cloud by setting up file shares in the Azure management console.

  • Microsoft Azure Key Vault

    Microsoft Azure Key Vault is a cloud-hosted management service that allows users to encrypt keys and small secrets like passwords or answers to security questions that are used in their cloud applications and services.

  • Microsoft Azure Operational Insights

    Microsoft Azure Operational Insights (AOI) is a cloud-hosted Software as a Service tool that allows an IT operations staff to collect and search data from multiple machines for analysis.

  • Microsoft Azure Premium Storage

    Microsoft Azure Premium Storage is solid-state drive storage for Azure virtual machines for workloads that require low latency and high throughput.

  • Microsoft Azure RemoteApp (Remote Application Services)

    Microsoft Azure RemoteApp (Remote Application Services) is a program that allows organizations to make remotely accessed programs or applications in Microsoft Azure, known as RemoteApp programs, appear as if they are native to end users' local computers.

  • Microsoft Azure Resource Manager

    Microsoft Azure Resource Manager (ARM) is a management framework that allows administrators to deploy, manage and monitor Azure resources.

  • Microsoft Azure Site Recovery

    Microsoft Azure Site Recovery is a new service in Microsoft Azure primarily used for disaster recovery purposes. First announced at TechEd 2014, Microsoft says the tool, which uses Azure as a target, will enable the failover of on-premises, Hyper-V virtual machines.

  • Microsoft Azure Stack

    Microsoft Azure Stack is an integrated platform of hardware and software that delivers Microsoft Azure public cloud services in a local data center to let organizations construct hybrid clouds.

  • Microsoft Certified Educator (MCE)

    Microsoft Certified Educator (MCE) is a credential to certify that an educator is literate in global technology and can provide students with an education that combines technology and learning in the classroom.

  • Microsoft Certified Solution Developer (MCSD)

    An MCSD (Microsoft Certified Solution Developer) is someone who has passed exams that test their ability to design and develop custom business applications with Microsoft development tools, technologies, and platform.

  • Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE)

    An MCSE (Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer) is someone who has passed exams about the Microsoft Windows NT operating system, related desktop systems, networking, and Microsoft's BackOffice server products.

  • Microsoft Client Hyper-V

    Microsoft Client Hyper-V is a type-1 hypervisor for the Windows 8.x and Windows 10 operating systems (OSes).

  • Microsoft Cloud Witness

    Microsoft Cloud Witness is a high availability feature for failover clusters that uses storage in the Microsoft Azure cloud platform to ensure clusters continue to function if there is a site outage.

  • Microsoft Cluster Operating System (OS) Rolling Upgrade

    Microsoft Cluster Operating System (OS) Rolling Upgrade is a feature that keeps Hyper-V virtual machines (VMs) or Scale-Out File Server workloads running during an upgrade from a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster to a Windows Server 2016 cluster.

  • Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) Generic Application

    Generic Application is a Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) resource type responsible for managing cluster-unaware applications.

  • Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) Generic Script

    Generic Script is a Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) resource type in a server cluster or failover cluster that supports an application controlled by a script that runs in Windows Script Host (WSH).

  • Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS)

    Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS) is a service that provides high availability (HA) for applications such as databases, messaging and file and print services.

  • Microsoft Connectivity Analyzer (MCA)

    The Microsoft Connectivity Analyzer (MCA) is a diagnostics tool for troubleshooting and testing connectivity to several Microsoft messaging products from a client machine on an organization's network.

  • Microsoft CPS (Microsoft Cloud Platform System)

    Microsoft CPS (Microsoft Cloud Platform System) is a software stack of Window Server 2012 R2, System Center 2012 R2, and Windows Azure Pack that runs on Dell servers.

  • Microsoft DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (Microsoft DCA)

    Microsoft DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (Microsoft DCA) is a tool administrators use to improve an enterprise's DirectAccess connection.

  • Microsoft Dynamic Access Control (DAC)

    Microsoft Dynamic Access Control (DAC) is a data governance tool in Windows Server 2012 that lets admins control the permission of access settings in an organization.

  • Microsoft Exchange 2010 Mailbox Server Role Requirements Calculator

    The Microsoft Exchange 2010 Mailbox Server Role Requirements Calculator is a free, downloadable tool from Microsoft that helps Exchange 2010 administrators design their mailbox server role so that it is optimized for their specific deployment.

  • Microsoft Exchange 2013 In-Place Hold

    In-Place Hold is a new e-discovery feature that was first introduced in Exchange Server 2013 release.

  • Microsoft Exchange 2013 Managed Store

    The Microsoft Exchange 2013 Managed Store is a mechanism used in Exchange Server 2013 to isolate failures at the database level.

  • Microsoft Exchange 2013 Poison Message Queue

    Microsoft Exchange 2013 Poison Message Queue is a queue that exists specifically to hold messages deemed harmful to the deployment after a transport server or service failure.

  • Microsoft Exchange 2013 Safety Net

    The Microsoft Exchange 2013 Safety Net is a feature new in Exchange Server 2013 that helps reduce data loss through delivery of copied email messages.

  • Microsoft Exchange 2013 site mailbox

    A Microsoft Exchange 2013 site mailbox is an Exchange 2013 feature that helps facilitate collaboration between SharePoint 2013 users.

  • Microsoft Exchange Address Book Policy (ABP)

    A Microsoft Exchange Address Book Policy is a feature that allows administrators to segment Exchange Global Address Lists in order to give users specified views of other users' email addresses in their Exchange organization.

  • Microsoft Exchange Control Panel

    The Exchange Control Panel (ECP) is a Web-based management interface introduced in Exchange Server 2010.

  • Microsoft Exchange Fast Access

    Microsoft Exchange Fast Access is a new feature in Microsoft Outlook 2013 that helps improve the email client's startup synchronization time.

  • Microsoft Exchange Global Address List (GAL)

    The Microsoft Exchange Global Address List is a list of all users and their respective email addresses within an Exchange Server organization that uses Microsoft Outlook for email.

  • Microsoft Exchange In-Place eDiscovery

    Microsoft Exchange In-Place eDiscovery is an administrative feature to perform legal discovery searches for relevant content in mailboxes.

  • Microsoft Exchange Information Store

    Microsoft Exchange Information Store is a storage platform that is used to manage numerous types of information within an Exchange Server deployment.

  • Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Replication Service (MRS)

    The Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Replication Service (MRS) is a feature that handles mailbox import, export, migration and restoration requests on Exchange Server.

  • Microsoft Exchange Management Shell (EMS)

    Microsoft Exchange Management Shell (EMS) is a scripting platform that enables administrators to manage Exchange Server. EMS is is built on top of Microsoft PowerShell, a command line shell that allows administrators to perform administrative tasks with simple noun-verb commands called cmdlets.

  • Microsoft Exchange Online Protection (EOP)

    Microsoft Exchange Online Protection (EOP) is an email cloud service that provides end users with protection against spam and malware.

  • Microsoft Exchange RBAC (Role Based Access Control)

    Microsoft Exchange RBAC is a permissions model used in Exchange Server 2010 and Exchange Server 2013.

  • Microsoft Exchange Server

    Microsoft Exchange Server is Microsoft's email, calendaring, contact, scheduling and collaboration platform. It is deployed on the Windows Server operating system for business use.

  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

    Exchange Server 2010 is the version of Microsoft’s messaging platform that replaced Exchange Server 2007.

  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    Exchange Server 2013 is an iteration of Microsoft’s Exchange server. Exchange Server 2013 is similar to Exchange Server 2010 in that the messaging platform can be deployed on-premises, in the cloud or as a hybrid solution in which some servers exist on-premises while others reside in the cloud..

  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Managed Availability

    Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Managed Availability is a built-in monitoring and recovery platform in Exchange 2013.

  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2016

    Microsoft Exchange Server 2016 is the latest iteration of the Exchange Server messaging platform. It is tentatively scheduled for release in the latter half of 2015.

  • Microsoft Exchange Server Jetstress

    Microsoft Exchange Server Jetstress is a tool that administrators can use to validate their Exchange Server storage configuration.

  • Microsoft Exchange Server Profile Analyzer (EPA)

    The Microsoft Exchange Server Profile Analyzer (EPA) is a Web-based tool that allows an administrator to gather data about a specific Exchange mailbox store or entire Exchange Server organization.

  • Microsoft Exchange Transport Dumpster

    The Exchange Transport Dumpster is a feature that exists in Exchange 2007 and 2010 to prevent data loss.

  • Microsoft Failover Cluster Manager (MSFCM)

    Microsoft Failover Cluster Manager (MSFCM) is a specific management function within the Windows Server operating system which is used to create, validate, and manage failover server clusters running Windows Server.

  • Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (Microsoft Forefront UAG)

    Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (Forefront UAG) is a tool that can provide a secure remote access option for remote end users who want to access corporate resources on PCs as well as on mobile devices.

  • Microsoft Group Policy administrative template

    A Microsoft Group Policy administrative template is a file that supports the implementation of Microsoft Windows Group Policy and centralized user and machine management in Active Directory environments.

  • Microsoft Hybrid Configuration Wizard

    The Microsoft Hybrid Configuration wizard is a tool in Exchange Server 2013 that provides a method for admins to create and configure hybrid deployments.

  • Microsoft Hyper-V 3.0

    Hyper-V 3.0 is the virtualization feature created for the client version of Windows 8 as well as Windows Server 8.

  • Microsoft Hyper-V Manager

    Microsoft Hyper-V Manager is a tool that allows administrators to create, change and delete virtual machines (VMs).

  • Microsoft Hyper-V Shielded VM

    A Microsoft Hyper-V Shielded VM is a security feature of Windows Server 2016 that protects a Hyper-V second-generation virtual machine (VM) from access or tampering by using a combination of Secure Boot, BitLocker encryption, virtual Trusted Platform Module (TPM) and the Host Guardian Service.

  • Microsoft Hyper-V version 1.0

    Hyper-V is Microsoft's server virtualization software for Microsoft Server 2008. (Continued...)

  • Microsoft Identity Manager 2016

    Microsoft Identity Manager 2016 is a tool that allows organizations to manage access, users, policies and credentials. MIM 2016 is the successor to Microsoft's Forefront Identity Manager 2010 R2.

  • Microsoft iSCSI Initiator

    Microsoft iSCSI Initiator is a tool that connects external iSCSI-based storage to host computers with an Ethernet network adapter.

  • Microsoft Log Parser Studio

    Microsoft Log Parser Studio is a front-end utility that features a graphical user interface, report builder and query repository for Microsoft's Log Parser application.

  • Microsoft Management Console (MMC)

    The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is an application that provides a graphical-user interface (GUI) and a programming framework in which consoles (collections of administrative tools) can be created, saved, and opened.

  • Microsoft Monitoring Agent

    The Microsoft Monitoring Agent is a service used to watch and report on application and system health on a Windows computer.

  • Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP)

    A Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) is an individual recognized by Microsoft for exceptional technical expertise and a talent for sharing knowledge within their technical community.

  • Microsoft Nano Server

    Microsoft Nano Server is a lightweight operating system based on Microsoft Windows Server 2016 that is tailored for use as an OS layer for virtualized container instances.

  • Microsoft Network Device Enrollment Service (NDES)

    Microsoft Network Device Enrollment Service (NDES) is a security feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 and later Windows Server operating versions. NDES provides and manages certificates used to authenticate traffic and implement secure network communication with devices that might not otherwise possess valid domain credentials.

SearchServerVirtualization

SearchCloudComputing

SearchSQLServer

SearchEnterpriseDesktop

SearchVirtualDesktop

Close