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One of the biggest changes for administrators in recent years is the cloud. Its presence requires administrators to migrate from their on-premises way of thinking.
The problem isn't the cloud. After all, there should be less work if someone else looks after the server for you. The arrival of the cloud has brought to light some of the industry's outdated methodologies, which is prompting this IT modernization movement. Practices in many IT shops were not as rigid or regimented before the cloud came along because external access was limited.
Changing times and new technologies spur IT modernization efforts
When organizations were exclusively on premises, it was easy enough to add finely controlled firewall rules to only allow certain connections in and out. Internal web-based applications did not need HTTPS -- just plain HTTP worked fine. You did not have to muck around with certificates, which seem to always be difficult to comprehend. Anyone on your network was authorized to be there, so it didn't matter if data was unencrypted. The risk versus the effort wasn't worthwhile -- a lot of us told ourselves -- to bother with and the users would have no idea anyway.
You would find different ways to limit the threats to the organization. You could implement 802.1x, which only allowed authorized devices on the network. This reduced the chances of a breach because the attacker would need both physical access to the network and an approved device. Active Directory could be messy; IT had a relaxed attitude about account management and cleanup, which was fine as long as everyone could do their job.
The pre-cloud era allowed for a lot of untidiness and shortcuts, because the risk of these things affecting the business in a drastic way was smaller. Administrators who stepped into a new job would routinely inherit a mess from the last IT team. There was little incentive to clean things up; just keep those existing workloads running. Now that there is increased risk with exposing the company's systems to the world via cloud, it's no longer an option to keep doing things the same way just to get by.
One example of how the cloud forces IT practices to change is the default configuration when you use Microsoft's Azure Active Directory. This product syncs every Active Directory object to the cloud unless you apply filtering. The official documentation states that this is the recommended configuration. Think about that: Every single overlooked, basic password that got leaked several years ago during the LinkedIn breach is now in the cloud for use by anyone in the world. Those accounts went from a forgotten mess pushed under the rug years ago to a ticking time bomb waiting for attackers to hit a successful login as they spin through their lists of millions of username and password combos.
Back on the HTTP/HTTPS side, users now want to work from home or anywhere they might have an internet connection. They also want to do it from any device, such as their personal laptop, mobile phone or tablet. Exposing internal websites was once -- and still is in many scenarios -- a case of poking a hole in the firewall and hoping for the best. With an unencrypted HTTP site, all data it pushed in and out to that endpoint, from anything the user sees to anything they enter such as username and password is at risk. Your users could be working from a free McDonald's Wi-Fi connection or at any airport in the world. It's not hard for attackers to set up fake relay access points and listen to all the data and read anything that is not encrypted. Look up WiFi Pineapple for more information about the potential risks.
How to accommodate your users and tighten security
As you can see, it's easy to end up in a high-risk situation if IT focuses on making users happy instead of company security. How do you make the transition to a safer environment? At the high level, there's several immediate actions to take:
- Clean up Active Directory. Audit accounts, disable ones not in use, organize your organizational units so they are clear and logical. Implement an account management process from beginning to end.
- Review your password policy. If you have no other protection, cycle your passwords regularly and enforce some level of complexity. Look at other methods for added protection such as multifactor authentication (MFA), which Azure Active Directory provides, which can do away with password cycling. For more security, combine MFA with conditional access, so a user in your trusted network or using a trusted device doesn't even need MFA. The choice is yours.
- Review and report on account usage. When something is amiss with account usage, you should know as soon as possible to take corrective action. Technologies such as the identity protection feature Azure Active Directory issues alerts and remediates on suspicious activity, such a login from a location that is not typical for that account.
- Implement HTTPS on all sites. You don't have to buy a certificate for each individual site to enable HTTPS. Save money and generate them yourself if the site is only for trusted computers on which you can deploy the certificate chain. Another option is to buy a wildcard certificate to use everywhere. Once the certificate is deployed, you can expose the sites you want with Azure Active Directory Application Proxy rather than open ports in your firewall. This gives the added benefit of forcing an Azure Active Directory login to apply MFA and identity protection before the user gets to the internal site, regardless of the device and where they are physically located.
These are a few of the critical aspects to think about when changing your mindset from on-premises to cloud. This is a basic overview of the areas to give a closer look. There's a lot more to consider, depending on the cloud services you plan to use.